Git is an open-source version control system that allows for better handling of projects. Thanks to how easy it is to learn and how fast its performance is it leaves behind other SCM tools like CVS, Perforce, ClearCase or Subversion
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Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (or WebDav for short) is an extension a HTTP protocol that is used to share, edit and transfer files between users through a web servers. It is mostly utilized in a collaborative projects for versioning and revision tracking.
FTP, which stands for File Transfer Protocol, is a standard web protocol used for transferring files between client and server in a computer network. The first iteration of FTP was introduced by Abhay Bhushan in 1971. Currently used specification comes for October 1985.
File Transfer Protocol over SSL (or FTPS for short) is an internet protocol that allows users to connect with one another in a more secure matter. File transfers via FTPS are auhtorized using passwords, client and server certificates. FTPS is a requirement for various security compliance certificates including PCI DSS, HIPAA, SOX and HITECH.
Short File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) provides more security than a regular File Transfer Protocol (FTP) by utilizing Secure Shell. Unlike FTPS, SFTP supports SSH key authentication and only requires a single port (22 by default) to be opened to get through the firewall.