FTP, which stands for File Transfer Protocol, is a standard web protocol used for transferring files between client and server in a computer network. The first iteration of FTP was introduced by Abhay Bhushan in 1971. Currently used specification comes for October 1985.
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File Transfer Protocol over SSL (or FTPS for short) is an internet protocol that allows users to connect with one another in a more secure matter. File transfers via FTPS are auhtorized using passwords, client and server certificates. FTPS is a requirement for various security compliance certificates including PCI DSS, HIPAA, SOX and HITECH.
Rsync is a C-based tool that allows for synchronizing files between a computer unit and external storage units across multiple, networked, computers. Rsync is used usually for synchronizing file structure between two different systems. Rsync is licensed under GNU General Public License.
Short File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) provides more security than a regular File Transfer Protocol (FTP) by utilizing Secure Shell. Unlike FTPS, SFTP supports SSH key authentication and only requires a single port (22 by default) to be opened to get through the firewall.
Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (or WebDav for short) is an extension a HTTP protocol that is used to share, edit and transfer files between users through a web servers. It is mostly utilized in a collaborative projects for versioning and revision tracking.